net/http Server

Server

Server对象定义:

type Server struct {
    Addr    string  // TCP address to listen on, ":http" if empty
    Handler Handler // handler to invoke, http.DefaultServeMux if nil
    TLSConfig *tls.Config

    ReadTimeout time.Duration
    ReadHeaderTimeout time.Duration // Go 1.8
    WriteTimeout time.Duration
    IdleTimeout time.Duration // Go 1.8
    MaxHeaderBytes int

    TLSNextProto map[string]func(*Server, *tls.Conn, Handler) // Go 1.1
    ConnState func(net.Conn, ConnState) // Go 1.3
    ErrorLog *log.Logger // Go 1.3
    BaseContext func(net.Listener) context.Context // Go 1.13
    ConnContext func(ctx context.Context, c net.Conn) context.Context // Go 1.13
}
属性 类型 版本 解释
Addr string 监听端口的地址
Handler Handler Server请求的处理对象
TLSConfig *tls.Config 监听端口的tls配置
ReadTimeout time.Duration
ReadHeaderTimeout time.Duration 1.8
WriteTimeout time.Duration
IdleTimeout time.Duration 1.8
MaxHeaderBytes int
TLSNextProto map[string]func(*Server, *tls.Conn, Handler) 1.1
ConnState func(net.Conn, ConnState) 1.3
ErrorLog *log.Logger 1.3
BaseContext func(net.Listener) context.Context 1.13
ConnContext func(ctx context.Context, c net.Conn) context.Context 1.13

Server Method

    func (srv *Server) Serve(l net.Listener) error
    func (srv *Server) SetKeepAlivesEnabled(v bool)
    func (srv *Server) RegisterOnShutdown(f func())
    func (srv *Server) Shutdown(ctx context.Context) error
    func (srv *Server) Close() error

    func (srv *Server) ListenAndServe() error
    func (srv *Server) ListenAndServeTLS(certFile, keyFile string) error
    func (srv *Server) ServeTLS(l net.Listener, certFile, keyFile string) error

Handler

http.HandleFunc

http.HandleFunc使用http.DefaultServeMux这个默认路由调用HandleFunc方法注册一个路由。

// HandleFunc registers the handler function for the given pattern
// in the DefaultServeMux.
// The documentation for ServeMux explains how patterns are matched.
func HandleFunc(pattern string, handler func(ResponseWriter, *Request)) {
    DefaultServeMux.HandleFunc(pattern, handler)
}

func (mux *ServeMux) HandleFunc(pattern string, handler func(ResponseWriter, *Request))

http.Handler

http.Handler是net/http库处理请求的接口,http.Server直接调用Handler处理请求。

http.ServeMux是net/http库内置的路由器,执行了基本匹配,但是实现了http.Handler接口,Server就直接使用Mux。

HandlerFunc是处理函数,但是这个类型实现了http.Handler接口,就将一个函数转换成了接口。

type Handler interface {
    ServeHTTP(ResponseWriter, *Request)
}


// The HandlerFunc type is an adapter to allow the use of
// ordinary functions as HTTP handlers. If f is a function
// with the appropriate signature, HandlerFunc(f) is a
// Handler that calls f.
type HandlerFunc func(ResponseWriter, *Request)

// ServeHTTP calls f(w, r).
func (f HandlerFunc) ServeHTTP(w ResponseWriter, r *Request) {
    f(w, r)
}

一下两种方法都将func(ResponseWriter, *Request){}这样一个函数转换成了http.Handler接口

http.HandlerFunc(func(ResponseWriter, *Request){})

func Convert(h http.HandlerFunc) http.Handler {
    return h
}

Middleware

基于net/http简单实现中间件,使用http.Handler接口,使用装饰器模式嵌套一层。

Logger对象实现了http.Handler接口,会先输出请求信息,然后调用路由处理这个请求。

http.ServeMux是标准库实现的路由器,会匹配并处理请求。

package main

import "fmt"
import "net/http"

func main() {
    // 创建并注册路由
    mux := &http.ServeMux{}
    mux.HandleFunc("/bar", func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
        fmt.Fprintf(w, "Hello, %q", r.URL.Path)
    })

    // 启动服务,给予处理者是Logger
    http.ListenAndServe(":8080", &Logger{mux})
}

type Logger struct {
    h   http.Handler
}

// 实现http.Handler接口
func (log *Logger) ServeHTTP(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
    // 输出日志信息
    fmt.Printf("%s %s\n", r.Method, r.URL.Path)
    // 使用下一个处理者处理请求
    log.h.ServeHTTP(w, r)
}

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