echo

github: https://github.com/labstack/echo

Example

echo的example过程分析。

package main

import (
    "net/http"

    "github.com/labstack/echo"
    "github.com/labstack/echo/middleware"
)

func main() {
    // Echo instance
    e := echo.New()

    // Middleware
    e.Use(middleware.Logger())
    e.Use(middleware.Recover())

    // Routes
    e.GET("/", hello)

    // Start server
    e.Logger.Fatal(e.Start(":1323"))
}

// Handler
func hello(c echo.Context) error {
    return c.String(http.StatusOK, "Hello, World!")
}

New

godoc打开echo的源码,地址就是域名godoc.org/再加报名github.com/labstack/echo

然后选择Index,就会跳过前面的介绍,直接到文档的函数和类型,在选择type Echo下的func New() (e *Echo)函数跳转到函数介绍。

选择蓝色的New函数,就会跳转到函数定义。

会看见的github定义的函数New内容如下:

// New creates an instance of Echo.
func New() (e *Echo) {
    e = &Echo{
        Server:    new(http.Server),
        TLSServer: new(http.Server),
        AutoTLSManager: autocert.Manager{
            Prompt: autocert.AcceptTOS,
        },
        Logger:   log.New("echo"),
        colorer:  color.New(),
        maxParam: new(int),
    }
    e.Server.Handler = e
    e.TLSServer.Handler = e
    e.HTTPErrorHandler = e.DefaultHTTPErrorHandler
    e.Binder = &DefaultBinder{}
    e.Logger.SetLevel(log.ERROR)
    e.StdLogger = stdLog.New(e.Logger.Output(), e.Logger.Prefix()+": ", 0)
    e.pool.New = func() interface{} {
        return e.NewContext(nil, nil)
    }
    e.router = NewRouter(e)
    return
}

New函数中创建了Echo对象,设置Server、Logger、Router等Echo的属性。

Use

在godoc列表里面像Echo.New函数一样,向下找到定义的func (e *Echo) Use(middleware ...MiddlewareFunc)函数,然后跳转到定义内容如下:

// Use adds middleware to the chain which is run after router.
func (e *Echo) Use(middleware ...MiddlewareFunc) {
    e.middleware = append(e.middleware, middleware...)
}

Use方法给echo的中间件追加中间件处理函数。

Get

Get方法调用Add方法注册一个新路由,Add方法让Echo的router注册方法,并保存该路由的信息,在启动时Echo会输出注册的路由信息。

// GET registers a new GET route for a path with matching handler in the router
// with optional route-level middleware.
func (e *Echo) GET(path string, h HandlerFunc, m ...MiddlewareFunc) *Route {
    return e.Add(http.MethodGet, path, h, m...)
}

// Add registers a new route for an HTTP method and path with matching handler
// in the router with optional route-level middleware.
func (e *Echo) Add(method, path string, handler HandlerFunc, middleware ...MiddlewareFunc) *Route {
    name := handlerName(handler)
    e.router.Add(method, path, func(c Context) error {
        h := handler
        // Chain middleware
        for i := len(middleware) - 1; i >= 0; i-- {
            h = middleware[i](h)
        }
        return h(c)
    })
    r := &Route{
        Method: method,
        Path:   path,
        Name:   name,
    }
    e.router.routes[method+path] = r
    return r
}

Start

Start方法启动一个http.Server

// Start starts an HTTP server.
func (e *Echo) Start(address string) error {
    e.Server.Addr = address
    return e.StartServer(e.Server)
}

Application

// https://github.com/labstack/echo/blob/master/echo.go#L64
// Echo is the top-level framework instance.
Echo struct {
    StdLogger        *stdLog.Logger
    colorer          *color.Color
    premiddleware    []MiddlewareFunc
    middleware       []MiddlewareFunc
    maxParam         *int
    router           *Router
    notFoundHandler  HandlerFunc
    pool             sync.Pool
    Server           *http.Server
    TLSServer        *http.Server
    Listener         net.Listener
    TLSListener      net.Listener
    AutoTLSManager   autocert.Manager
    DisableHTTP2     bool
    Debug            bool
    HideBanner       bool
    HidePort         bool
    HTTPErrorHandler HTTPErrorHandler
    Binder           Binder
    Validator        Validator
    Renderer         Renderer
    Logger           Logger
}

// by godoc
func New() (e *Echo)
func (e *Echo) AcquireContext() Context
func (e *Echo) Add(method, path string, handler HandlerFunc, middleware ...MiddlewareFunc) *Route
func (e *Echo) Any(path string, handler HandlerFunc, middleware ...MiddlewareFunc) []*Route
func (e *Echo) CONNECT(path string, h HandlerFunc, m ...MiddlewareFunc) *Route
func (e *Echo) Close() error
func (e *Echo) DELETE(path string, h HandlerFunc, m ...MiddlewareFunc) *Route
func (e *Echo) DefaultHTTPErrorHandler(err error, c Context)
func (e *Echo) File(path, file string, m ...MiddlewareFunc) *Route
func (e *Echo) GET(path string, h HandlerFunc, m ...MiddlewareFunc) *Route
func (e *Echo) Group(prefix string, m ...MiddlewareFunc) (g *Group)
func (e *Echo) HEAD(path string, h HandlerFunc, m ...MiddlewareFunc) *Route
func (e *Echo) Match(methods []string, path string, handler HandlerFunc, middleware ...MiddlewareFunc) []*Route
func (e *Echo) NewContext(r *http.Request, w http.ResponseWriter) Context
func (e *Echo) OPTIONS(path string, h HandlerFunc, m ...MiddlewareFunc) *Route
func (e *Echo) PATCH(path string, h HandlerFunc, m ...MiddlewareFunc) *Route
func (e *Echo) POST(path string, h HandlerFunc, m ...MiddlewareFunc) *Route
func (e *Echo) PUT(path string, h HandlerFunc, m ...MiddlewareFunc) *Route
func (e *Echo) Pre(middleware ...MiddlewareFunc)
func (e *Echo) ReleaseContext(c Context)
func (e *Echo) Reverse(name string, params ...interface{}) string
func (e *Echo) Router() *Router
func (e *Echo) Routes() []*Route
func (e *Echo) ServeHTTP(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request)
func (e *Echo) Shutdown(ctx stdContext.Context) error
func (e *Echo) Start(address string) error
func (e *Echo) StartAutoTLS(address string) error
func (e *Echo) StartServer(s *http.Server) (err error)
func (e *Echo) StartTLS(address string, certFile, keyFile string) (err error)
func (e *Echo) Static(prefix, root string) *Route
func (e *Echo) TRACE(path string, h HandlerFunc, m ...MiddlewareFunc) *Route
func (e *Echo) URI(handler HandlerFunc, params ...interface{}) string
func (e *Echo) URL(h HandlerFunc, params ...interface{}) string
func (e *Echo) Use(middleware ...MiddlewareFunc)

Start

https://github.com/labstack/echo/blob/master/echo.go#L642
// StartServer starts a custom http server.
func (e *Echo) StartServer(s *http.Server) (err error) {
    // Setup
    e.colorer.SetOutput(e.Logger.Output())
    s.ErrorLog = e.StdLogger
    s.Handler = e
    if e.Debug {
        e.Logger.SetLevel(log.DEBUG)
    }

    if !e.HideBanner {
        e.colorer.Printf(banner, e.colorer.Red("v"+Version), e.colorer.Blue(website))
    }

    if s.TLSConfig == nil {
        if e.Listener == nil {
            e.Listener, err = newListener(s.Addr)
            if err != nil {
                return err
            }
        }
        if !e.HidePort {
            e.colorer.Printf("⇨ http server started on %s\n", e.colorer.Green(e.Listener.Addr()))
        }
        return s.Serve(e.Listener)
    }
    if e.TLSListener == nil {
        l, err := newListener(s.Addr)
        if err != nil {
            return err
        }
        e.TLSListener = tls.NewListener(l, s.TLSConfig)
    }
    if !e.HidePort {
        e.colorer.Printf("⇨ https server started on %s\n", e.colorer.Green(e.TLSListener.Addr()))
    }
    return s.Serve(e.TLSListener)
}

ServeHTTP

// https://github.com/labstack/echo/blob/master/echo.go#L563
// ServeHTTP implements `http.Handler` interface, which serves HTTP requests.
func (e *Echo) ServeHTTP(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
    // Acquire context
    c := e.pool.Get().(*context)
    c.Reset(r, w)

    h := NotFoundHandler

    if e.premiddleware == nil {
        e.router.Find(r.Method, getPath(r), c)
        h = c.Handler()
        for i := len(e.middleware) - 1; i >= 0; i-- {
            h = e.middleware[i](h)
        }
    } else {
        h = func(c Context) error {
            e.router.Find(r.Method, getPath(r), c)
            h := c.Handler()
            for i := len(e.middleware) - 1; i >= 0; i-- {
                h = e.middleware[i](h)
            }
            return h(c)
        }
        for i := len(e.premiddleware) - 1; i >= 0; i-- {
            h = e.premiddleware[i](h)
        }
    }
    // Execute chain
    if err := h(c); err != nil {
        e.HTTPErrorHandler(err, c)
    }

    // Release context
    e.pool.Put(c)
}

ServeHTTP函数先分配Context对象,然后Reset初始化,再初始化处理函数。

h处理函数先给一个初始值就是NotFound的处理,再检查是否有之前执行的中间件,

最后执行中间件执行链封装的函数h,然后h函数处理Context对象。

释放Context。

middleware

// https://github.com/labstack/echo/blob/master/echo.go#L104
type MiddlewareFunc func(HandlerFunc) HandlerFunc

// https://github.com/labstack/echo/blob/master/echo.go#L362
// Pre adds middleware to the chain which is run before router.
func (e *Echo) Pre(middleware ...MiddlewareFunc) {
    e.premiddleware = append(e.premiddleware, middleware...)
}

// Use adds middleware to the chain which is run after router.
func (e *Echo) Use(middleware ...MiddlewareFunc) {
    e.middleware = append(e.middleware, middleware...)
}

echo中间件使用HandlerFunc进行一层层装饰,最后返回一个HandlerFunc处理Context。

基于echo性能测试用例,发现增加echo中间件会有相对明显性能下降。

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